Blood Protein Polymorphism Research is a reliable technique for effectively understanding evolutionary relationships of dogs. To discover the origin of Japan's ethnicity, Professor Tanabe took about 4000 dogs from approximately 50 different dog breeds, 30 of them which were indigenous Asian dog breeds, and discovered the evolutionary relationship of dogs by analyzing their blood protein polymorphism. The blood protein polymorphism research begins with selecting proteins within the blood that can be used for distinguishing different breeds, or simply polymorphism proteins. Due to the advanced genetic understanding involved in the research procedures and discussion, this manuscript will be centered on the results. The 16 different proteins of dogs that were studied were Pa, Alb, Poa, Ptf, Tf, Es, Lap, Akp, Hb, Es-2, Es-3, Pac, To, Gmoa, Gmog, GPI. Professor Tanabe used electrophoresis to discover the polymorphism of all 16 different proteins for each of his 4000 dog subjects. After Tanabe collected and combined these data, he represented his findings with 16 pages of pictures. Among the 16 studied proteins, Tanabe showed distribution map of 2 proteins in picture 1. Picture 2 shows the pedigree's geographical gradient phenomenon. The picture shows that there is a similar blood-relationship between Korean dogs and dogs living in southwestern Japan. The blood-relationship changes as one moves northward or southward from the southwestern region. Picture 2 is the final result of Principal Component Analysis (PCA) of the frequency of allelic character appearance based on the 16 pages of pictures containing the data of 16 studied proteins. Picture 3, which includes research data from 400 Jindo dogs, Sapsarees, and Jeju dogs, reveals interesting information regarding the blood relationship between our indigenous dogs and clearly shows the relative blood relationship between Korean dogs, Japanese dogs, and Western dogs. The genetic distance analysis of Sapsarees, Jindo dogs, and Jeju dogs revealed that the blood relationship between the three Korean breeds are closer than of any other breeds around the world. Although the outer appearance of Jindo dogs and Jeju dogs are remarkably similar to that of indigenous Japanese dogs, they are actually very different from each other in terms of their blood-relationship. This shows that biochemical research based on the frequency of blood protein polymorphism is much more reliable than judging by a dog's appearance when it comes to standards on classifying dog breeds. Korean dogs are classified into one independent group and are clearly distinguishable from representative Western dogs such as Shepherds, Yorkshire Terriers, and Poodles. In terms of geographical distance and blood-relationship distance, Japanese dogs are located somewhere in the middle between Western dogs and Korean dogs. Shi-ba and Akida, which inhabit the mid-region of Japanese archipelago, and American hunting dogs are shown to be relatively close to Jeju dogs. Moreover, Eskimo dogs, which are also distant from other breeds, were proven to be most closely related to Laika, a Russian breed, and to shepherd dogs of Caucasia. This research result, which shows the long-distance blood relationship between distinct Korean dogs and most nearby breeds, is a valuable historical data that indirectly proves the uniqueness of our Korean race.
Map of Red Blood Cell
Hemoglobin Polymorphism present in
regional dogs inhabiting
Far East Asia
Map of Red Blood Cell Gmo Polymorphism
Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Map Showing the
Blood Relationship Between Dog Breeds